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Full text of "Comment on Soviet intervention in Afghanistan"

THE LIBRARY 
OF 

THE' UNIVERSITY 
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AT. 
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What are the results that the Soviet Union an< 

the world are waiting for after the intervention 

in Afghanistan? 




/ 



Published by 

Translation and Foreign Languages 

Publication Department 

Ministry of Culture and Information 
Baghdad, Iraq 



Before the second world war, there were two 
major imperialistic empires that have been 
sharing the biggest part of colonies in the world, 
namely England and France. There also were 
other great powers but they did not have such 
effective role in the outside world that was under 
the control of these two empires. The most major 
powers of these were America, the Soviet Union 
and Germany. The struggle continued 
aggrivating in order to re-share the sphere of 
influence in the world. 

Gremany, which was gaining more and more 
power, began situating itself on the front struggle 
line so as to get a great share of colonies and 
influence in tne world at the expense of those of 
England and France. 

It was natural that it should follow the method 
of transitional alliance with every country that had 
the same declared or concluded aims on the front 
page. One of the most eminent allies of Germany 
was Italy which seeked the expansion of its 
colonialistic power or at least kept it in front of the 
expansion of the power of France and Britain. 
Germany also forget an alliance with Japan 
which formed a major colonialistic power in its 
area in Asia. 



World War II took place and ended with the 
defeat of Germany and its allies, and the victory 
of the others.. Then the task of redistributing 
power in the world upon new bases after the 
conditions of war, displayed new powers that 
rushed to occupy the front line. 

Thus the Soviet Union and the United States 
of America appeared on the forefront as leading 
international powers that affected the world 
outside, their territorial borders, whereas they did 
not Occupy such a position before the war 
because they lacked the followers who 
advocated their policy as a form of the actual 
extension of the strategy of both of them through 
effective bases in the world. 

Before World War II, the name of the 
United States was above suspicion. Many 
political trends that influenced a wide extent. of 
people of the world, were hoping that the United 
States would play a role that serves and may be 
leading to liberating the peoples from old 
colonialism. These ideas were encouraged by 
declared policies in the United States that were 
made by leading political statesmen and some of 
its thinkers. 
The poor peoples of the third world, 



however, were grateful for the American 
subsidies that were given for some poor 
countries in a way that seems to naive people as 
being free of cost. It is certain that these 
subsidies were not designed to have direct 
returns like the policy of old colonialism. They 
were meant to be as a preparation for the 
imperialistic American policy. It was a start that 
layed a curtain on the real interests and powers 
that the United States wanted to achieve later. 
" Hence, both the United States and the Soviet 
Union emerged in the forefront as if they were the 
real victors of the war. Were it not for them, Hitler 
would have controlled all of Europe and any 
territory he would choose in other continents. 

"We often have this question occuring to our 
minds": 

Could Hitler have Germany's influence and 
his own ideas cover the entire globe? 

With full confidence we say that Hitler could 
have not, and no one else could let his ideas, 
power and control prevail all over the world, -not in 
this stage nor in future, because no one ever did, 
in the past. 

If we look back at ancient history andtetch 



more divine and more glorious ideas, namely the 
heavenly values, we would find that non of them 
prevailed completely over the world and won all 
human beings in spite of the divine heavenly 
values and the necessities of the world that 
these idiologies have. 

If all heavenly idiologies successively, could- 
not prevail all over the world, nor win all 
humanity, we do not believe that anyone can 
presume that worldly idiologies can. It seems that 
this condition is one of the most important laws of 
heavens and earth. Both heaven and earth in 
dealing with this matter together or separately, 
will find this law necessary for evolution, struggle 
and competition for evolution. Hence, the 
humanistic national call of our party assumes a 
part of its principled and objective justifications. It 
is not isolated from humanistic functions that 
must be observed in today's world, and it rejects, 
at the same time, to be drowned in a sea of 
illusions of the probability of establishing a single 
law that governs humanity as a whole. 

We distinguished, and still do, between the 
calls for the welfare of humanity and the calls for 
controlling humanity and plundering it. 

At the time that we find in the former 






everything that is right for the purposes of 
evolution, irrespective of our opinion of the 

correctness of its outlook, we suspiciously view 
the latter and find that it is one of the elements 
that are responsible for a great deal of the 
destruction and humiliation that happened to 
humanity long time ago. However, we do not 
qleny that the struggle of good and evil on one 
surface is a subjective situation in the world. It is 
found in human beings for different reasons, and 
as long as the laws of heavens do not abolish it, 
then the laws of earth are not able to do so. But 
as the laws of heavens diminished the space of 
the evil will and its expressions, then the will of 
man is requested to diminish the space of the evil 
will that continuously faces humanity. Thus, 
power was redistributed and the lion's share went 
dearly for the United States and the Soviet 
Union, to each with a form that fits its outlook. 
But this distribution of power did not cease the 
struggle between the major powers. It 
transformed the positions and were modified in 
form and trend although it left stable laws in the 
international policy, in the forefront of which is 
that any major country in the world that finds that 
it can mitigate effects beyond its territorial 
borders in one way or another, does not hesitate 



to do so. It is the beginning that will undoubtedly 
lead to control, authority and power whenever 
possible and whatever good will has the country 
when it starts to extent influence beyond its 
borders. Such result in one way or another to 
major countries, always and everywhere. 

Therefore; the intervention in the internal 
affairs of others, and the desire to dominate small 
countries and peoples is one of the most major 
laws of the big powers always and everywhere, 
whether this was the motive of the major 
countries from the start, or whether it was an 
inevitable result when special factors are 
provided and under various disguises and 
excuses. 

The. role of the Soviet Union was decisive in 
letting Eastern Europe get rid of the dascist 
control in World War II. The role of the United 
States and its allies was also decisive in letting 
Western Europe get rid of fascist control. 
Therefore, and duelo the influencial importance 
of Europe in the World for many familiar reasons, 
the Soviet Union politically entrenched in other 
forms in Eastern Europe. The United States of 
America entrenched mainly in a direct and 
indirect form in Western Europe and started 



8 



spreading out its policy and control on a wide 
area of the world. It took over the place of Britain 
and France in many areas of the world. Its role 
was effective in deminishing the area of the two 
old empires and putting an end to the form of old 
colonialism and its methods. Thus, America's 
influence penetrated by all methods and on all 
levels, the Middle East area along with Britain 
and France at the beginning. It then gradually 
and with different methods removed Britain and 
France, which were hated by the peoples of the 
area. 

Although the Soviet Union did not enter the 

area, but for a short period during World War II in 
some Iranian parts that were left by it according 
to the committal agreements that resulted from 
the war and the relation between its parties. The 
Soviet Union had no previous convictions in 
domination or colonialism in the area even in the 
Caesarean era. The end of the war, however, did 
not give the Soviet Union the chance to be 
influential as in the case Of the United States, not 
only in our area but also in all the areas of the 
world except the area that was militarily 
dominated by the Soviet Union and which was 
means for the communist parties to reach power 
in Eastern Europe. This phenomenon had its 



reasons. One of them was that the Soviet Union 
lacked the necessary information and 
experience beyond its boarders, while the 
Americans employed all the information and 
experience of the European colonialist countries 
together in the first stage and by relative 
separation and alone in later stages. The 
difficulties, the tasks and the economic 
potentialities that faced the Soviet Union 
were possessed by it. Thus, rearranging the 
conditions of Western Europe by America, made 
the latter use some of its abilities, while the Soviet 
Union was obliged to affirm and deepen the 
intellectual and political trend that it wants in 
Eastern Europe and for the reconstruction of 
what was destroyed by war as well as handling 
the problems that were left in these countries and 
in the Soviet Union that, contrary to America, had 
the war going on in wide parts of its land. The 
other factor is religion and its primary role in 
forming the mentality, policies and thoughts of 
many peoples of the world, especially those of 
the Islamic Middle East peoples. This factor and 
the conflicting atheistic thoughts and policies that 
are expressed in the Soviet Union and the 
communist theory as well as the wrong and 
slanted attitude of Arab communist parties 



10 



towards the case otthe Arab-zionist struggle. All 

these factors made the chances of the Soviet 
Union less than those of the United States and 
somewhat non-existent in the first stage that 
followed the end of World War II until the mid- 
fifties. The Soviet Union remained pre-occupied 
in its tasks and its own problems within its 
regional borders and the borders of Eastern 
Europe. 

Did the Soviet Union move beyond its borders 
or were there circumstances that made it do 
so? 

Therefore; the influence of the Americans 
had widened and that of thq colonialist European 
countries had shrunk. Thus the gains of the 
United States, objectively speaking, were at the 
expense of the old colonialistic European 
countries" especially Britain and France. Hence, 
the Soviet Union because it did not move beyond 
the borders that was set for it and its influence by 
the outcome of the World War II, the gain achieved 
by the United States was not at the expense of 
the Soviet Union but at that of the Western 
countries, that's why this American activity did 
not lead to direct and furious conflict between the 
Soviet Union and the United States. Due to the 



11 



wide economic potentialities of the United States 
and because its industries were designed in the 
first place according to its own abilities, and that 
most of its products were consumed within its 
lands until then, the United States was able to 
cover many of its intentions for a relatively long 
period, at an age that is greatly and qualitatively 
different concerning the consciousness and the 
potentialities from that during which it emerged, 
and old colonialism extended to a wide area of 
the world. It was also able to appear as the holder 
of the torch of — Freedom and Goodness — to 
a broad portion of the third world peoples. Were it 
not for the Zionist entity and the United States' 
supportive attitude that occupied the front line 
after the end of the Suez War of 1 956, the role of 
the United States and its effect and influence 
would have been wider and deeper than its role 
now in the Middle East area. Were it not for its 
support for the Zionist entity and the colonialistic 
war that it entered against the people of Vietnam, 
its role and influence would have been wider and 
deeper than that of now. But this was the thing 
that the United States could not avoid because it 
is an imperialistic country by nature, and because 
this role is one of the objective laws of the big 
powers that are looking for roles and influence 



beyond their regional borders "n today's world + ^ 
irrespective of the veils and the intentions. ' j£Jr 

Wh en did the Soviet Union enter the areaQ 

After a series of national and non-national 
military coup d'etats and after an intensive 
struggle of the national forces following Syria's 
independence of French colonialism, a national 
government was achieved in Syria under which 
the political and public forces enjoyed a great 
deal of democratic freedom. The basic trend in 
the Syrian army called for the independence from 
the West and its effects and pacts and rejection 
to join the Baghdad pact and the colonialistic 
plans in the area. In this atmosphere and under the 
circumstances 6f Turkey's threats, Syria's need 
for weapons emerged. Hence was the beginning 
to seek the importation of weapons from the 
countries of the communist block. This task was 
widened by Abdul Nassir, such task was made by 
the decision and the blessings of the Soviet 
Union, although it was at the beginning with the 
countries of Eastern Europe. 

This was the beginning of the serious 
dealings between the Arabs and the Soviet 
Union. With the entry of the "Eastern" weapon — 



12 



13 



as it is called — to the area, the influence of the 
Soviet Union began. The strong relation between 
Abdul Nassir and the Soviets (inspite of the 
problems that occur between them for some 
reason or another) had a basic role in widening 
the influence and relations of the Soviet Union in 
the area because Abdul Nassir was a national 
hero and was a believer, religiously speaking, and 
was a progressionist, therefore the effect of his 
passive relation with the Soviet Union was not 
confined to the borders of Egypt or the United 
Arab Republic after the Unity of 1958, but 
extended to the Arab Homeland and the Arab 
.people in more than one way. This relation was 
the serious beginning to break the psychological 
barrier that kept the Arabs away from the Soviet 
Union and communism, inspite of the injustice 
inflicted by the West against them. The Arabs, in 
particular, and the Islamic countries in general, 
continued to discreminate in one way or another 
between dealing with the Soviet Union and the 
communist countries and its importance and 
necessity sometimes to meet the dangers of the 
old and modern Western colonialism, inspite of 
the warnings that are stated in different places 
and at different times, between communism and 
local communists. This state of affairs continued 



;' ' 



until the agression of the 5th of June 1 967 by the 
Zionist entity against the Arabs. When the Arab 
countries that participated in the war, were 
defeated, two main trends emerged from the 
political justification that assumed different 
idiologies: One attributed the defeat of Arabs in 
the 5th of June 1967 to their encounter with the 
American power and to their wrong obligation to 
the defeated governments (Egypt and Syria) in 
the unilateral and international relation with the 
Soviet Union. The other attributed the defeat to 
the fact that the poor classes and their 
revolutionary parties did not reach power and that 
the relation between the Soviet Union and the 
communist block did not assume a serious state 
of alliance. Our party at that time had been facing 
the challenges of the secret struggle and did not 
have a ruling system that expresses its point of 
view in today's world where no one listens to the 
truth unless it is said by the authority and the 
confusion of interests through it on the 
international policy level. The first justification 
was launched by the Americans and their allies 
and influences and the second by the Soviet 
Union and influences. 

The Arabs were torn between those two 
trends and lacked the prominent and determined 



14 



15 



will to specify the reasons of defeat. The 
bitterness of the relapse and its circumstances 
and the lack of an undefeated commandary 
forum in the Arab field that is able to give the right 
Arab attitude, was the main reason that left the 
Arabs scattered between those analysis without 
support. The majority that influenced the 
technical circles that effected the general opinion 
trends was of the first analysis although the 
United States was accused and had great 
responsibility in the aggression of the 5th of June. 
This was the view that prevailed on the Arab 
people and their national parties. But the technic- 
ally influential trends in the Arab general opinion 
which were blaming the Soviet Union for the 
defeat of Egypt, were not few. These circles 
resorted to the Egyptian officials announcements 
of the Soviet ambassador's advice to Abdul 
Nassir not to be the first to attack the Zionist 
entity, and other stories that were leaked through 
the Egyptian organs on purpose and under the 
influence of the United States, or due to the 
bitterness of the relapse and the reasons that 
were given to justify it. The Arab masses, 
however, continued viewing the United States as 
an enemy that took part in the crime with the 
Zionist entity on the 5th of June. Thus; inspite of 



16 



the exaggeration and previous intentions the 

Soviet Union remained the inescapable friend 
with which they can confront the same enemies 
whether by letting the strategies or interests or 
both of them meet, irrespective of what could the 
circumstances lead to the possibility that the 
Soviet Union would fall under the influence of the 
joint order of the major powers in present time in 
its relation with the small countries where it would 
certainly put its national interests on the forefront 
df its respects and may be Its desire to dominate 
and expand when possible. Therefore; the voices 
of the masses were loudly heard demanding that 
the Soviet Union fulfill the obligations of 
friendship and putting it under political and moral 
pressure in order to support the Arab front with 
necessary weapons so as to confront the Zionist 
enemy. The Soviet Union was aware of many of 
the thoughts that hamper its relation with the 
Arabs and its attitude towards the war of the 5th 
of June and towards the Arab-zionist struggle It 
defended its attitude in different forms and 
methods, the strongest was that the Arabs would 
receive the necessary arms to confront their 
haughty enemy which tried with its supporters to 
make the Arabs appear as if they lost the battle 
not only because they were going through certain 



17 



conditions,but also because they are not able tot 
confront this enemy in that battle, and any other 
one, because they are backward in comparison 
with the cultural and scientific ability the Zionists 
enjoy. They also said that the Arabs were fighting 
the truth not fighting for it, therefore thev will 
remain defeated for ever. The Arab people 
listened to those falsities which deepened the 
wounds that the war of the 5th of June added to 
the relapse of the year 1948 which resulted the 
establishment of the Zionist entity on a great part 
of Palestine's land. Every single weapon that 
they received from the Soviet Union carried along 
everything that fitted this psychological condition 
and severe circumstances that were like a 
frightening nightmare to the Arabs, which 
benef ied the Soviet Union against the Americans. 
During these circumstances the glorious 
revolution of July took place in Iraq. Abdul Nassir 
regained an important part of his military, political 
and psychological balance which was confused 
by the agression of the 5th of June. The war of 
exhaution started on the Canal in 1970 against 
the Zionist entity. Regardless of the traditional 
military evaluations of this war, the most 
important element in it was that the Egyptian 
soldier or officer began to be conscious that he 






can harm the Zionist enemy if he was determind 
and if he owned arms and experience. Although 
the comparative losses were uneven as far as the 
technical military considerations were concerned, 
the psychological gain was definite. This was not 
only needed by the Egyptians that had their 
morals shattered by the false propaganda, but 
also by all the Arabs. 

Under all these circumstances, the Soviet 
Union started gaining high prestige in the field of 
the Arab relation. The main reason for that was 
not due to the intelligence of the Soviets but due 
to the hostile attitude of the Americans in their 
support of the Zionist entity against the Arabs. 
Inspite of all the complications that the Soviets 
faced in their relation with the Arabs, this relation 
remained in the forefront in comparison with 
many countries of the third world, strategically 
speaking, and for well known reasons, among 
which is the oil reserve that the Arabs have and 
its influence on the policy of the West or the 
future of the West and the traditionally known 
strategic traffic routs as well as its nearness from 
the Soviet Union. 

But in spite of all these considerations, the 
war of the 6th of October 1973 and its political 
consequences, and the deterioration of the 



18 



19 






relations between Egypt and the Soviet Union 
under the rule of Sadat, made the Soviet. Union 
think seriously and thoroughly about this Arab- 
Soviet relation. Then, what are the results of this 
thorough thinking? 

The direct political results of the war of the 
6th of October 1973 were unsatisfactory as far as 
the Soviets were concerned. For, although the 
weapons that the Arabs used in the battle were 
Soviet^ made, nothing satisfactory for the Soviets 
appeared in the Arab political facade. The 
Americans gained many military and political 
results of war. The timina of the war was decided 
without any influence from the Soviets through 

they knew about it and the detriorating relations 
between them and Egypt in the period that 
preceded October's war made it look as if it took 
place inspite of the Soviet Union and its 
assessments concerning the general political 
aspect and the actual aspect. Al-Sadat's regime 
was careful to let it appear as such. Moreover, 
the Arabs realised in a more far-reaching and 
exact way, the necessity of the relation between 
possessing advanced arms and using them 
efficiently in war, and the comprehensive cultural 
advancement levels of life. And the relation 
between national dignity and sovereignty and its 



political prerequisties, and the human being's 
satisfaction in his social life and the necessary 
requirements of life that should be provided to 
him in order to keep up with the development of 
the world and respond to its requirements. This 
feeling was deepened by the advancement 
caused by revolutions and national 
progressionist notions in the Arab Homeland as 
well as the experiences of the struggle with the 
Zionist enemy and the increase of the Arabs 
economic and financial abilities lately. Thus the 
Arabs are seeking social and economic 
development on a wide and quick framework. 
The Soviet Union is by all means unable and 
unprepared to respond to all the requirements of 
the Arabs' development even for those who are 
able to pay in cash and with foreign currencies. 
What results await the Soviets and the world 
following the intervention in Afghanistan? 



The nature of the Soviet planning in the ligh t 
nf its theory jp the socialist build up and its 

JOliticai add economic cnn Hitinng wag 



concentrating on heavy industries and consumer 
rpods. The equilibrium was lost between them 
noticeably. Thus the balance between the activity 



20 




of serving and producing consumer goods that 
respond to the new needs in the light of the 
growth of the purchasing ability of citizens, and 
the nature of evolution of such fields in the world, 
and between the productive activity which 
focuses on special pattern of productivity of 
special priority that does not fit with the previous 
considerations just like the Soviet economy and 
technique to focus on military industries so there 
would be imbalance between those industries 
and the civil industries. Therefore, the* 
inadvancement of civil industries and products 
was a clear phenomenon compared with civil 
industries and products in the capitalist countries 
market. And due to the fact that the Arabs of new 
development have the abilities of financial 
payment and able to choose the sources of their 
goods and requirements for development, 
therefore the basic focus of their trade and' 
economic relations became with the capitalist 
market. This phenomenon was not met with 
satisfaction by the Soviet Union for in addition to 
being deprived of an unusual amount of foreign 
currencies that it increasingly needs due to its will 
to modernise its civil product by buying some 
equipments from the capitalist market, this 
pnenomenon revealed some of the inaccuracy of 




i 



mobilization that the Soviet Union wal 
concentrating on since many years which is that 
the economic relations with the capitalist 
countries could not achieve serious economic 
development in the third world countries and that 
the only relation that allow for development is that 
of the Soviet Union and other communist 
countries. Mobilization on the basis of these 
concepts on the side of the Soviet Union is 
unrestricted and is not related to certain time or 
circumstances therefore uncovering its mistakes is 
not being viewed with satisfaction by the Soviet 

Union. 

There is no doubt that the capitalist market 
countries do not want that serious economic 
development be achieved in the developing 
countries or at least they do not want that serious 
development of comprehensive meaning be 
achieved in developing economic life in a way that 
puts the developing countries outside the 
influences of the capitalist countries' markets by 
keeping the developing countries as a market for 
disposing and for the importation of raw materials 
for capitalist industries, needless to say that the 
capitalist market countries do not want the 
economic development to assume revolutionary 
socialist concept to change the build up of the 



23 



society concerning the classes in a way that is 
more suitable to its desires and plans. The thing 
that the Soviet Union did not take into 
consideration is that the capitalist market 
countries are no more able to monopolise the 
equipment and requirements of development as 
before because of the qualitative development of 
international policy and the development of 
competition inside the capitalist countries, the 
matter that helped to do away with the 
monopolies of most of for nearly, all civil 
industries. The transfer of technology in any 
extent was not gained by the developing 
countries were, in one way or another, subject to 
the control or domination of imperialism or old 
colonialism. Their economic and financial 
conditions did not enable them to pay for the 
equipment that they want to buy. Thus, any 
economic dealing with the capitalist market' went 
on according to special conditions imposed 
arbitrarly on the developing countries by those 
countries. The developing countries had no 
choice but to submit to these conditions. 

Today, conditions have changed enormously 
and qualitatively. The developing countries were 
liberated from the grip of imperialism and 
colonialism. They have their independent 



24 



character and the development of international 
policy ensured for them the multiplicity of choices 
of dealing with any country. Their economic 
potentialities, especially that of petroleum 
countries, allowed them to pay easily for the 
things they want to buy. They are also able due to 
these conditions not only for the transfer and the 
purchase of tools and equipment that they want 
and need but also for the transfer of technology 
by transfering all the means of knowledge that 
are connected to it. On the other hand, the ways 
of dealing with the developing countries, by 
Western countries. Some of them found that 
resisting a part of the scientific and economic 
development in the developing countries forms a 
danger that threats the relation between Western 
countries and the developing countries. Due to all 
these reasons, the idea that says that providing 
the equipment and requirements of serious 
development in the developing countries is not 
achieved unless by the relation between these 
countries and the communist block as it was 
before, is no more true. This is being realised by 
the Soviet Union and the communist countries 
though they do not want to admit it in public for 
well-known reasons. All the phenomena and 
conditions that appeared in the relation between 



25 



the Soviet Union and the Arab countries, must be 
studied and fully considered so as to adopt new 
decisions concerning this relation. Thus, in the 
light of all these facts, the Soviet Union evaluated 
the relation between itself and the Arabs before, 
during and after the 6th of October 1973. While 
studying the world's political map and 
considering the conditions of the area, the most 
important matter that was most carefully 
considered was by all means the possibilities of 
effecting the nearest places of the Arab 
Homeland. The Soviet Union most certainly 
came to specific conclusions and decisions 
among which we can mention the following: 

* The facts and phenomena that we 
mentioned before concerning the nature of the 
people of the area as well as the experiences of 
the Soviets since the year 1 955 till that date in the 
area made it realize that some of the ways that it 
had been treated by, must be reconsidered such 
as the possibility of changing all the area to one 
where Marxism prevails, which is incorrect. f 

* The special nature of the area such as the 
sensitivity of the West concerning their oil 
interests when they are approached by the Soviet 
Union, need to concentrate on the slogan of 



26 



opening the entrances of the area and not from 
within. 

Thus there was special concentration on 
Ethiopia and Afghanistan. The achievement of 
quick results in. Ethiopia and Afghanistan 
made it stick to this slogan. We hope that the 
statements that say that the Soviet Union is 
concentrating on some parts concerned in the 
relation so as to extend politically and 
ideologically in a definite way in the area and that 
it found it better than the horizontal relation of 
friendship with other parts that do not ensure 
such extension although they attend to the basis 
of friendship and are progressive and firmly and 
honestly against imperialism, will not be fulfilled. 
Thus the Soviet Union has almost no clear 
diplomatic activities after the war of 1973. 
Therefore, the Soviet Union concentrated on its 
relation with Eden and other Arab countries 
because it was certain that there are countries 
that are more sincere in their enemity of 
imperialism and are more effective against 
imperialism. But the part that interests the Soviet 
Union or so it seems, and we hope that this 
assumption will prove wrong, is not the most 
sincere part which is against imperialism and 
which is socialist, patriotic and sincere in 



27 



28 



respecting the relations of friendship between 
them, but that it is most interested in the choices 
that are more amenable to its strategy both on 
the long and the short terms, and so, it can 
achieve all the above mentioned expansions 
through the right choice and not by the friendship 
that their forms and means were as a bridge for it 
by which it entered the area. Many years ago, we 
have said on many occasions that the real 
strategic value of oil in the Middle East and from 
the Soviet Union point of view and all world 
strategists, is not because its real value as oil 
although it is a special commodity, but its value 
lies basically in the way that its being used by 
controlling it in a way that makes the relation 
between Japan, Europe and the United States, a 
special one. The control of the Americans on 
numerous shares of oil in the area after World 
War II, and decreasing the shares and the role of 
France and England, was due to this strategy and 
not the mere desire of American capitalism to 
expand the control on important sources of 
wealth and raw materials. The Americans were 
and are still starting from the point of central 
estimation about their relation with the petroleum 
countries, that's to say using oil in a way that 
keeps their grip powerful all around the world and 



especially ensures keeping the alliance between 
them and Europe and Japan. The Soviet Union 
understands this fact, therefore, its central 
estimations of viewing the area's oil are the will to 
weaken or break up the alliance between Europe, 
Japan and America and to ensure the expansion 
of the Soviet Union and under excellent 
conditions in wide parts of the world. 

It is clear, by all the above mentioned 
calculations and conclusions, that the importance 
of Afghanistan does not lie in it being really, 
important although the existence of a comm iioist 
j-pgjmpi in an |sja,mi c country helps to break the. 
psychological barrier between the Moslems and_ 
communis m.a s it is helping the existing regime im 
Eden, but the value of relationship between 
Afghanistan and the Soviet U nion has a basic 
value o f forming a strategic key in the petroleum 
I Thus the Soviet union intervened IT 

ftgharrlsTan taking the responsibility of all thej 
results and possibilities and all expected an( 

i expected reactions to its act in the area and al] 
lover the woi 



> 



29 



What are the possible results and reactions 
that will face the Soviet Union after late 
incidents of Afghanistan and its severe 
intervention in its internal affairs? 

* The war in Vietnam and the Arab-zionist c 
conflict and the disgraceful attitude of America 
towards them, contributed in exposing the United 
States' intentions and on a wide scale. The 
United States of America became hateful by 
many peoples of the world and the peoples of the 
Middle East area in general and the Arab people 
in particular, in spite of all the official relations that 

the United States enjoy with such governor or 
regime in and outside the area. And in spite of the 
propagandas and rumours against the Soviet 
Union, describing its relations, methods, interests 
and intentions as being the same as those of 
other major countries however different their 
forms were, the Soviet Union gained more 
respect and appriciation in its relations with some 
of the countries of the area. Its role in arming the 
Arab countries was appriciated by ail Arab 
patriots. All the attempts of the Soviet Union's 
enemies to destroy the confidence in this relation 
were rn vain, despite the information and 
quotations that they gave, such as the incidents 



30 



of 1956 in Hungary and of 1968 in 
Czechoslovakia. The Arabs who were faithful to 
their struggle and their case rejected these 
accusations and gave special explainations for 
the circumstances of Hungary and 
Czechoslovakia considering the fact that their 
political conditions have been arranged in the 
light of the results and circumstances of World 
War II as well as other well-known 
considerations. But since the -first coup d'etat in 
Afghanistan that put an end to Muhammed 
Dawood Khan's rule and brought Taraki and his 
clique to power, the news that were announced 
by several News Agencies were taken into 
consideration by many sons and peoples of the 
area. The general opinion was interested in a 
most unusual way in the coup d'etat of Ali 
Muhammed Dawood Khan, because he was not 
an agent and his relation and friendship with the 
Soviets as an official rule was well-known. The 
arms of the Afghanistan army during his era were 
Soviet-made and most of the training courses of 
his army especially the air force, were in the 
Soviet Union. Therefore it was a big surprise 
•when the news spread out that the coup d'etat 
against Dawood Khan was staged basically by 
the organized effort of the Soviet Intelligence and 
due to the relation with the Afghanistan army 

31 



officers that have been won during the courses 
that- have trained in the Soviet Union, In order to 
stress their conclusions concerning this matter, 
the owners of this opinion wonder how can a 
small disunited party with no wide or visible 
activities like the Afghanian commiunist party 
with its different names change the ruling 
government if the basic technical act was not 
accomplished by the officers who have no 
relation with the party and are not officially 
organized by it, but are organized in and 
connected with a foreign relation that found a 
formal connection between them and the official 
communist party organization?... 

A part from all this, those news and rumours 
arose the attention of the Arab general opinion. 
The events in Eden and the removal of Salim 
Rubei Ali and instating Abdul Fatah Ismail in 
power, as well as the news that have been 
reported by the mass-media and the news 
resources that are against the Soviet Union and 
Eden and those are not. The news concerned a 
specific role of the Soviets in these incidents, so 
as to provoke wide questionings about the 
possibility of the change of the methods and 
relations and friendship relations of the Soviets. 
Thus the severe and large-scaled intervention of 

32 



the Soviets in the internal affa irs m Affl hanictan ) 
or better to say the occupation of Afghanistan, 
wouia u ndoubtedly pro voke anxiety on a large 
scale a nd w nnout exception among all those who 
nave relations or friendship with the Soviets, in 
addition to those who do not have such rela tions 
and 



in the area ana^Trorrl all" over the world. The 
regime or Hatiz Allah Amin staged this coup 
d'etat against Ali Taraki without consulting the 
Soviets. It is not an American agent, nor a 
reactionary regime. Furthermore; it enjoyed the 
Soviet's official confidence to the last second 
before the coup d'etat. How then could 
confidence exist in the international relation 
between two or more parties, and what are its 
standards and basis? This question will remain 
occuring to the minds of the peoples of the world. 
To what extent then, can the Soviet Union lessen 
the effect and reactions of this act? The events of 
the near and far future will provide an answer to 
this question. 

After the series of scandals committed by the 
Americans against the people of the world, they 
have been looking for a ransom to help them out 
of the historic critical situation into which they 
placed themselves, because of the imperialistic 
nature of their regime, or other conditions that are 



33 



the consequence of misjudgement and the role 
that had been and is still being played by the 
effective powers that have American interests, in . 
adoptinq the American resolution or at least 
effecting it. Among these powers is the" Zionist 
power and its extensions. The American attitude 
which was against the Arabs and on the side of 
the Zionist entity and the effects of the war of 
Vietnam were plagued to the American policy and 
were hindering the schemes that the United 
States wanted to do to the benefit of its policies in 
the world and in the area. 

The seizure of the hostages in the American 
Embassy in Tehran, and the intervention of the 
Soviets in Afghanistan, helped the United States 
in getting rid of the hard feelings against it. It also 
increased its potentialities in the mobilization of 
efforts of the alliance between it, Europe, and 
Japan and increasing the fear and tension of the 
countries of the area that lack the elements of self- 
defence and have no close relation with their 
peoples. Jhprp jQ no Hnnht ^t the enemies of, 
jhe Soviet Union and of th«> a rah r\r\\r n V"" 
h^npjfi ^ from |hLq condi tion- anr L get other 
mnnt pp.g with ! hfim thr ^linh fogr - in qpiri ng policy.^ 

The responsibility of Iraq to ease this 



situation will be increased in a way that makes 



34 



every country that seeks independence for its 
peoples, seek such relation, keep away from 
meanness and corruption and achieve 
satisfaction and happiness for its people through 
progressive national order, irrespective of its 
opinion about the Soviet intervention. Seeking 
help and assistance through an alliance with the 
United States leads to destruction. The 
experience of the near future in more than one 
place in the world, such as the incidents of Iran, is 
a very good proof for it. The best way is, to 
consolidate the non-aligned course between the 
countries of the area and the world and to 
establish sincere relations based on mutual 
respect and equality and solving problems by 
peaceful means whenever possible. On the basis 
of the fact that everyone would lead the above- 
mentioned course, all powers whether small or 
big are not able to achieve their dishonest 
purposes on its lands. The opportunities that are 
open now and which will be open in future within 
the international policy, are able to help those 
who are seeking the consolidation of their 
independence by honest and respectable ways 
that are supported by strong national will and 
comprehensive perspective of the possibilities 
and gifts of life and that the strong independent 



35 



glorious Iraq is a model that should be followed in 
this context. 

* Some may wonder how could the Soviet 
Union, embark on such acts inspite of all the 
above-mentioned facts? 

We have to mention here that all the 
possibilities and all their origins and sources are 
not undertaken by those who make the policy and 
some of those who make the policy rash 
sometimes to attempting goal without realising its 
far-reaching results under the pressure of several 
considerations. This may lead them to consider 
one or several certain possibilities to adopt 
serious decisions, such resolutions could be 
adopted by some short-sighted people, so is this 
what had happened in the Soviet Union? 

The forthcoming conferences of the Soviet 
communist party will answer this question in the 
light of the progress of events in Afghanistan and 
the areas that surround it, in addition to the 
answer of others concerned in politics from the 
peoples and the countries of the world. ^ 

* Afghanistan is an Islamic country. The 
people of Afghanistan are difficult to control and 
fanatic concerning their religion and traditions. 
The land is mountainous and rough. Bedouin 
relations prevail in Afghanistan which has 



I i n< 



36 



borders with Pakistan and Iran, in addition to its 
long borders with the Soviet Union. The armed 
opposition existed in Afghanistan before the 
iniervenii6n" of the Soviet army. The series of 
coup d'etats that took place after Muhammed 
Dawood Khan's regime, have weakened the 
solidarity of the front of the friends of the Soviets. 
This intervention will give an additional meaning 
to the opposition in rejecting the governing 
regime in Kabul. Will the Afghan opposition and 
the anti-Soviet trends affect the reputation of the 
Soviet Union and its policies as the war of 
Vietnam did to the United States? 

There is no dou bt that the existence of the 

j^nyipt.Q jn, Afghanistan will n^t h Q u^l^mqfj fry 

f hP ppfT' Q nt A hhnrthtan. And th ere is no doubt 
that their task will not be easy, The complete and 
comprehensive answer to this question, 
however, requires the knowledge of several facts 
and matters that must be dealt with so as to help 
knowing the trends of the future. 

The more accurate answer to this question 
would depend, in addition to the above- 
mentioned facts, on the following: 

To what extent does the West and in the 
forefront of which, the Americans, adopt such 



37 



decisions in confronting the Soviet Union? And 
will their's be a direct reaction on the land of 
Afghanistan basically or on other area in the 
Middle East or in another part of the world? 

The matter that attracts the attention is that 
certain circles in the West, including the 
Americans, have known the possibilities of the 
Soviet intervention before it took place, but did 
not come over the uproar as they are used to do 
until after it took piace. 

Did the Americans want to trap the Soviet 
Union, or will the latter be more clever in planning 
and acting? 

The actions of the Soviet Union in 
Afghanistan will certainly help to settle the 
confused and agitated conditions in Iran in a final 
or semi-final way in the year 1980. This will not be 
achieved by the general balance of conditions but 
in a technical style whether for the benefit of the 
United States or the Soviet Union. 

It is also expected that the internal conditions 
of Southern-Yemen and Ethiopia would be 
influenced by the events of Afghanistan. News 
are being heard about troubled conditions in 
them. After all these facts, will the events of 
Afghanistan and their successive development 



38 



be a burden on the Soviet Union? 

Will the intervention in Afghanistan be an 
opportunity to the Soviet Union's enemies to 
make its action in Afghanistan be similar to the 
actions that uncover an important part of the 
methods and intentions of major countries at an 
early time? 

And will the price that the Soviets will pay 
due to this action be equivalent to the schemes 
that they planned and undertook? 



39 



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